Takeaways:

  • It’s been 60 million years since penguins abandoned flight for swimming, and researchers have finally discovered how.
  • After looking at penguin fossils and genomes, the researchers concluded that penguins adapted to survive some environmental changes that unfolded over millions of years ago.
  • Advancing ice during periods of glacial and interglacial cycles pushed penguins northward, separating them from other populations. By the time the ice retreated, the separated penguins had evolved into different species.

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